Female infertility also called infertility in females is defined as the inability to conceive baby after a year of unprotected intercourse. About 10% of the couples are affected by infertility. Infertility can occur in both men and women. It affects an estimated 48 million women with the highest occurrence of infertility affecting people in South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa/Middle East, and Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia. It can be the cause of many sources, including nutrition, diseases, and other deformity of the uterus. Infertility affects women from around the world, and the cultural and social stigma surrounding it varies.
Causes of female infertility are as follows:-
- Damage of fallopian tubes — Damage to the fallopian tubes can prevent contact between the egg andsperm. Pelvic infections, endometriosis, and pelvic surgeries may lead to blemish formation and fallopian tube damage.
- Cervical Causes — some women may have cervical stipulation in which the sperm cannot pass through the cervical canal. Whether due to abnormal mucus production or a prior cervical surgical process, this problem may be treated with intrauterine inseminations.
- Hormonal Causes — some women have problems withovulation and the hormonal changes leading to the release of an egg from the ovary and the thickening of the endometrium in preparation for the fertilized egg do not occur in them.
- Uterine Causes — abnormal anatomy of the uterus and the presence of polyps andfibroids.
- Unexplained infertility — thecause of infertility in approximately 20% of couples will not be determined using the currently available methods of investigation.
How does age affect female infertility?
Women are born with a limited number of eggs. Thus, as the reproductive years progress, the number and quality of the eggs diminish. Hence the chances of conceiving a baby decrease by 3% to 5% per year after the age of 30. This reduction in fertility is noted to a much greater extent after age 40.
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